Mechanisms and clinical importance of bacteriophage resistance

Julia Egido, A.R. Martins Costa, C. Aparicio Maldonado

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


We are in the midst of a golden age of uncovering defense systems against bacteriophages. Apart from the fundamentalinterest in these defense systems, and revolutionary applications that have been derived from them (e.g. CRISPR-Cas9 andrestriction endonucleases), it is unknown how defense systems contribute to resistance formation against bacteriophagesin clinical settings. Bacteriophages are now being reconsidered as therapeutic agents against bacterial infections due the
emergence of multidrug resistance. However, bacteriophage resistance through defense systems and other means couldhinder the development of successful phage-based therapies. Here, we review the current state of the field of bacteriophagedefense, highlight the relevance of bacteriophage defense for potential clinical use of bacteriophages as therapeutic agentsand suggest new directions of research.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberfuab048
Number of pages16
JournalFEMS Microbiology Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • phage resistance
  • phage therapy
  • innate immunity
  • adaptive immunity
  • bacteria
  • defense


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