Melting behaviour of iron ore pellet bed under nut coke mixed charge conditions

Dharm Jeet Gavel, Allert Adema, Jan van der Stel, Kees Kwakernaak, Jilt Sietsma, Rob Boom, Yongxiang Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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The melting and dripping behaviour of an iron ore pellet bed mixed with nut coke are investigated through a series of quenching, melting and dripping experiments. In the melting bed of iron ore pellets, nut coke acts as a frame to maintain the passage for the gas flow. The iron carburisation level of the pellet shell is found to control the melting temperature of the pellet bed. Simultaneous and layer-wise melting is observed for the pellet bed with and without mixed nut coke, respectively.

In the case of pellet bed mixed with nut coke, the liquid dripping starts at a lower temperature (1500°C) compared to the case when nut coke is absent (1518°C). Subsequently, a steady rate of liquid dripping is observed for the pellet bed mixed with nut coke. However, in the case of the pellet bed without nut coke, most of the liquid drips (~50 wt%) at high temperature (1550°C). The difference in carbon content of the quenched pellets and the dripped metal reveals that a substantial iron carburisation occurs when liquid iron flows over the regular coke particles.

The nut coke is noticed to consumed preferentially in place of the regular coke. Additionally, the total coke consumption decreases with an increase in nut coke addition in the pellet bed. These results give support for more extensive use of nut coke as a replacement of the regular coke in the ironmaking blast furnace.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberISIJINT-2019-246
Pages (from-to)451-462
JournalISIJ International
Volume60 (2020)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • ironmaking
  • dripping
  • melting
  • iron carburisation
  • pressure drop
  • Nut coke
  • blast furnace
  • Melting
  • Dripping
  • Ironmaking
  • Blast furnace
  • Pressure drop
  • Iron carburisation


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