Metocean criteria for internal solitary waves obtained from numerical models

Liaqat Ali*, Nageena Makhdoom, Yifan Gao, Pan Fang, Sikandar Khan, Yong Bai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
16 Downloads (Pure)


A numerical model in slice configuration was applied to the Central Andaman Sea in order to derive metocean operational and design criteria associated to internal solitary waves which are large amplitude interfacial waves. For that purpose, a 10 year hindcast was generated. The model was driven by tides at the open boundary and included realistic stratification and topogra-phy. The results have been compared to data mostly taken from satellites and proved to be accurate in determining parameters such as phase speed and interpacket distance. The phase speeds range from 2.21 m/s in March to 2.5 m/s in November. Corresponding interpacket distances range from 99 km to 111 km in close agreement with available data. According to the model results internal solitary waves are more/less frequent in March/August. Model outputs were specifically analyzed at 2 arbi-trary locations. Maximum current speeds obtained with the model at those locations occur in November reaching a value close to 1.5 m/s. The computed velocities associated to return periods of 1, 10, 50, 100 and 1000 years are, respectively, 1.67 m/s, 1.76 m/s, 1.8 m/s, 1.81 m/s and 1.84 m/s.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1554
Number of pages14
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Andaman Sea
  • Extreme criteria
  • Internal solitary waves
  • Numerical modelling


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