Minimally modified balanced codes

Kees A. Schouhamer Immink, Jos H. Weber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


We present and analyze a new construction of bipolar balanced codes where each codeword contains equally many -1's and +1's. The new code is minimally modified as the number of symbol changes made to the source word for translating it into a balanced codeword is as small as possible. The balanced codes feature low redundancy and time complexity. Large look-up tables are avoided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-193
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • balanced code
  • Codes
  • Complexity theory
  • constrained code
  • Decoding
  • Encoding
  • error propagation
  • Indexes
  • Raney’s Lemma
  • Redundancy
  • Symbols


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