Modeling and Simulating Human Fatality due to Quadrotor UAS Impact

B. Rattanagraikanakorn, H.A.P. Blom, Alexei Sharpanskykh, C. de Wagter, C. Jiang, M.J. Schuurman, Derek I. Gransden, R. Happee

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

64 Downloads (Pure)


Evaluating safety risk posed to third parties on the ground due to UAS impact requires a model of probability of fatality (PoF) for human. For quadrotor UAS, the existing impact models predict remarkably different PoFs. The most pessimistic is the impact model adopted by Range Commanders Council (RCC) while the Blunt Criterion model is far more optimistic. The ASSURE study has assessed the third set of PoF values through conducting controlled drop tests of a DJI Phantom III on a crash dummy; these results differ again. To investigate these discrepancies, this paper employs a numerical impact analysis of UAS collisions on humans. The current paper is the third in a series of studies. The first study developed a MultiBody System (MBS) simulation model of a DJI Phantom III impacting the head of a crash dummy; this MBS model has been validated against the experimental drop test results of ASSURE. The second study conducted simulations with the validated MBS model to systematically show the differences in head and neck injuries if the human dummy is replaced by a validated MBS model of a human body. The aim of the current paper is threefold: i) to extend the latter MBS model to assess injury levels for DJI Phantom III impact on thorax and abdomen; ii) to transform the assessed injury levels for head, thorax and abdomen to PoFs; and iii) to compare the MBS obtained PoFs to those from RCC and Blunt Criteria models. The MBS based results show that variations in the scenario of DJI Phantom III impact on the head significantly affect PoF. These variations are not captured by the RCC or BC model, and neither in the ASSURE measurements. Both for head, thorax and abdomen, in case of comparable impact scenarios, the RCC model tends to over-predicts PoF compared to the MBS model, while the BC model tends to under-predict PoF.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAIAA AVIATION 2020 FORUM
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-62410-598-2
Publication statusPublished - 2020
EventAIAA Aviation Forum - Virtual/online event due to COVID-19
Duration: 15 Jun 202019 Jun 2020

Publication series

Volume1 PartF


ConferenceAIAA Aviation Forum

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


Dive into the research topics of 'Modeling and Simulating Human Fatality due to Quadrotor UAS Impact'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this