Modeling of Resonant Tunneling Diode Oscillators Based on the Time-Domain Boundary Element Method

S.O. Lasisi, T.M. Benson, M.T. Greenaway, G. Gradoni, K. Cools

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We demonstrate how the coupling of a full-wave time-domain boundary element method (BEM) solver with a circuit solver can be used to model 1) the generation of high frequency oscillations in resonant tunneling diode (RTD) oscillators, and 2) the mutual coupling and synchronization of non-identical RTDs with significant differences in frequencies to achieve coherent power combination. Numerical simulations show a combined output power of up to 3.7 times a single oscillator in synchronized devices. The non-differential conductance of the RTD is modeled as a lumped component with a non-linear current-voltage relationship. The lumped element is coupled to the radiating structure using a finite-gap model in a consistent and discretisation independent manner. The resulting circuit equations are solved simultaneously and consistently with time-domain electric field integral equations that model the transient scattering of electromagnetic (EM) fields from conducting surfaces that make up the device. This paper introduces three novel elements: (i) the application of a mesh independent feed line to the modelling of feed lines of RTD devices, (ii) the coupling of the radiating system to a strongly non-linear component with negative differential resistance, and (iii) the verification of this model with circuit models where applicable and against the experimental observation of synchronisation when two RTDs are placed in close proximity. These three elements provide a methodology that create the capacity to model RTD sources and related technology.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9809810
Pages (from-to)161-167
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Journal on Multiscale and Multiphysics Computational Techniques
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • BEM
  • TD-BEM
  • Modeling
  • RTD
  • Terahertz
  • THz
  • Oscillators


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