Masonry structures, although classically suitable to withstand gravitational loads, are sensibly vulnerable if subjected to extraordinary actions such as earthquakes, exhibiting cracks even for events of moderate intensity compared to other structural typologies like as reinforced concrete or steel buildings. In the last half-century, the scientific community devoted a consistent effort to the computational analysis of masonry structures in order to develop tools for the prediction (and the assessment) of their structural behavior. Given the complexity of the mechanics of masonry, different approaches and scales of representation of the mechanical behavior of masonry, as well as different strategies of analysis, have been proposed. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the existing modeling strategies for masonry structures, as well as a novel classification of these strategies are presented. Although a fully coherent collocation of all the modeling approaches is substantially impossible due to the peculiar features of each solution proposed, this classification attempts to make some order on the wide scientific production on this field. The modeling strategies are herein classified into four main categories: block-based models, continuum models, geometry-based models, and macroelement models. Each category is comprehensively reviewed. The future challenges of computational analysis of masonry structures are also discussed.