Experiments and field observations have revealed that when silt and very fine sand are subject to oscillatory wave motion, a high shear flow layer and a high concentration layer (HCL) exist near the bottom. The behavior of the HCL is still under researched. Firstly, an intra-wave process based 1DV model was established for fine sediment transport under the combined action of waves and currents. Some key processes that were included in the model are represented through approaches for different bed forms (rippled bed and ‘flat bed’), hindered settling, stratification, reference concentration and critical shear stress. A number of experimental datasets were collected to verify the model, which shows that the model is able to properly simulate the flow and sediment dynamics. Secondly, sensitivity analyses were carried out on some factors which would impact the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) profile of the HCL by the 1DV model, such as bed forms, flow dynamics, stratification effects, mobile bed effects and hindered settling. Results show that bed forms play a significant role in the HCL and determination of the shape of the concentration profile. When a current is imposed, the SSC profiles become smoother; however, sediment concentration in the lower HCL is still dominated by the wave motions. For finer sediment, the stratification effects and the mobile bed effects strongly impact the HCL. In conclusion, this paper provides a tool for the study of the HCL and an evaluation of several impact factors on the HCL.
- 1DV model
- Bed form
- Bottom boundary layer (BBL)
- High concentration layer (HCL)
- Silt and very fine sand