The flow over densely forested terrain under neutral and non-neutral conditions is considered using commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Results are validated against data from a site in Northeastern France. It is shown that the effects of both neutral and stable atmospheric stratifications can be modelled numerically using state of the art methodologies whilst unstable stratifications will require further consideration. The sensitivity of the numerical model to parameters such as canopy height and canopy density is assessed and it is shown that atmospheric stability is the prevailing source of modelling uncertainty for the study.
- Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
- Site assessment
- Wind energy