Models of co-creation

Jotte de Koning, Marcel Crul, Renee Wever

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review


This paper aims to give an overview of the existing models of co-creation and create meta-models from these existing ones. The existing models were found in academic and popular or business publications. A total of 50 models was analysed and clustered and used to create 4 meta-models of co-creation. These meta-models depict the ‘joint space of co-creation’, ‘the co-creation spectrum’, ‘the co-creation types’ and ‘the co-creation steps’. They form a framework to classify existing research as well as define boundaries for upcoming projects. These meta-models should contribute to the clarity, understanding and application of co- creation.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationService Design Geographies
Subtitle of host publication Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference
EditorsNicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani
PublisherLinköping University Electronic Press
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)978-91-7685-738-0
Publication statusPublished - 2016
EventServDes. 2016: Fifth Service Design and Innovation conference - Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark
Duration: 24 May 201626 May 2016

Publication series

NameLinköping Electronic Conference Proceedings
PublisherLinköping University Electronic Press
ISSN (Print)1650-3686
ISSN (Electronic)1650-3740


ConferenceServDes. 2016
Internet address


  • co-creation
  • service design
  • innovation
  • model
  • visual representation
  • framework

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