Monitoring antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater environments: The challenges of filling a gap in the One-Health cycle

Aleksandra Miłobedzka, Catarina Ferreira, Ivone Vaz-Moreira, D. Calderon Franco, Adrian Gorecki, Sabina Purkrtova, Jan Bartacek, Lukasz Dziewit, D.G. Weissbrodt, More Authors

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleScientificpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)
59 Downloads (Pure)


Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a global problem requiring international cooperation and coordinated action. Global monitoring must rely on methods available and comparable across nations to quantify AR occurrence and identify sources and reservoirs, as well as paths of AR dissemination. Numerous analytical tools that are gaining relevance in microbiology, have the potential to be applied to AR research. This review summarizes the state of the art of AR monitoring methods, considering distinct needs, objectives and available resources. Based on the overview of distinct approaches that are used or can be adapted to monitor AR, it is discussed the potential to establish reliable and useful monitoring schemes that can be implemented in distinct contexts. This discussion places the environmental monitoring within the One-Health approach, where two types of risk, dissemination across distinct environmental compartments, and transmission to humans, must be considered. The plethora of methodological approaches to monitor AR and the variable features of the monitored sites challenge the capacity of the scientific community and policy makers to reach a common understanding. However, the dialogue between different methods and the production of action-oriented data is a priority. The review aims to warm up this discussion.
Original languageEnglish
Article number127407
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • ARB
  • ARGs
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Human health risk
  • One-Health
  • Wastewater monitoring


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