Monitoring energy performance improvement: insights from Dutch housing association dwellings

H.S. van der Bent*, H.J. Visscher, A. Meijer, N. Mouter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Downloads (Pure)


The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) enhanced the sustainable improvement of dwellings in the European Union. Member states formulated measurable goals to improve the housing stock, and monitoring systems were developed to give insights into the improvements. In the Netherlands, non-profit housing associations agreed to improve the quality of their housing stock to an average Dutch energy label B (energy index (EI NV) = 1.40) by 2020. Research assessing this progress over time is presented using an annual monitoring system based on 2.0 million energy performance calculations of 264 Dutch non-profit housing associations between 2017 and 2020. The assessment includes: a detailed description of the development of the state of the stock over time; the effect of changes to the stock (construction and demolition) and changes within the stock (different types of retrofit measures); and the different characteristics of non-profit housing associations. Insights from this research show which specific retrofit and other measures are adopted and have substantial impact over time. This provides a useful frame of reference for building stock analysis and accelerating the improvement of the building stock. It also creates a baseline of information for the future sustainable development of this particular stock.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)779-796
Number of pages18
JournalBuilding and Cities
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • building stock
  • energy index
  • energy performance
  • housing associations
  • monitoring
  • retrofit
  • the Netherlands


Dive into the research topics of 'Monitoring energy performance improvement: insights from Dutch housing association dwellings'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this