Monocular 3D reconstruction of sail flying shape using passive markers

Luiz Maciel, Ricardo Marroquim, Marcelo Vieira, Kevyn Ribeiro, Alexandre Alho

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We present a method to recover the 3D flying shape of a sail using passive markers. In the navigation and naval architecture domain, retrieving the sail shape may be of immense value to confirm or contest simulation results, and to aid the design of new optimal sails. Our acquisition setup is very simple and low-cost, as it is only necessary to fix a series of printable markers on the sail and register the flying shape in real sailing conditions from a side vessel with a single camera. We reconstruct the average sail shape during an interval where the sailor maintains the sail as stable as possible. The average is further improved by a Bundle Adjustment algorithm. We tested our method in a real sailing scenario and present promising results. Quantitatively, we show the precision in regards to the reconstructed markers area and the reprojected points. Qualitatively, we present feedback from domain experts who evaluated our results and confirmed the usefulness and quality of the reconstructed shape.

Original languageEnglish
Article number26
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalMachine Vision and Applications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • 3D Reconstruction
  • Monocular
  • Passive Markers
  • Sail

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