Monotonic laterally loaded pile testing in a dense marine sand at Dunkirk

Ross A. McAdam, Byron W. Byrne, Guy T. Houlsby, William J.A.P. Beuckelaers, Harvey J. Burd, Kenneth G. Gavin, David J.P. Igoe, Richard J. Jardine, Christopher M. Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
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The results obtained from a field testing campaign on laterally loaded monopiles, conducted at a dense sand site in Dunkirk, northern France are described. These tests formed part of the PISA project on the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines. Results obtained from monotonic loading tests on piles of three different diameters (0·273 m, 0·762 m and 2·0 m) are presented. The piles had length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) of between 3 and 10. The tests consisted principally of the application of monotonic loads, incorporating periods of held constant load to investigate creep effects. The influence of loading rate was also investigated. Data are presented on the overall load-displacement behaviour of each of the test piles. Measured data on bending moments and inclinations induced in the piles are also provided. Inferences are made for the displacements in the embedded length of the piles. These field data will support the development of a new one-dimensional modelling approach for the design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines. They also form a unique database of field measurements in a dense sand, from lateral loading of piles at a vertical distance above the ground surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)986-998
Number of pages13
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • full-scale tests
  • model tests
  • offshore engineering
  • piles AND piling
  • soil/structure interaction

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