Motion-compensated noninvasive periodontal health monitoring using handheld and motor-based photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging systems

Moein Mozaffarzadeh, Colman Moore, Erfan Barzegar Golmoghani, Yash Mantri, Ali Hariri, Alec Jorns, Lei Fu, Martin D. Verweij, Nico De Jong, More Authors

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Simultaneous visualization of the teeth and periodontium is of significant clinical interest for image-based monitoring of periodontal health. We recently reported the application of a dual-modality photoacoustic-ultrasound (PA-US) imaging system for resolving periodontal anatomy and periodontal pocket depths in humans. This work utilized a linear array transducer attached to a stepper motor to generate 3D images via maximum intensity projection. This prior work also used a medical head immobilizer to reduce artifacts during volume rendering caused by motion from the subject (e.g., breathing, minor head movements). However, this solution does not completely eliminate motion artifacts while also complicating the imaging procedure and causing patient discomfort. To address this issue, we report the implementation of an image registration technique to correctly align B-mode PA-US images and generate artifact-free 2D cross-sections. Application of the deshaking technique to PA phantoms revealed 80% similarity to the ground truth when shaking was intentionally applied during stepper motor scans. Images from handheld sweeps could also be deshaken using an LED PA-US scanner. In ex vivo porcine mandibles, pigmentation of the enamel was well-estimated within 0.1 mm error. The pocket depth measured in a healthy human subject was also in good agreement with our prior study. This report demonstrates that a modality-independent registration technique can be applied to clinically relevant PA-US scans of the periodontium to reduce operator burden of skill and subject discomfort while showing potential for handheld clinical periodontal imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1543-1558
JournalBiomedical Optics Express
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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