Moving Target Detection and Parameter Estimation via a Modified Imaging STAP with a Large Baseline in Multistatic GEO SAR

Xichao Dong, Chang Cui, Weiming Tian, Yuanhao Li, Melzi Mounir, Cheng Hu

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Abstract

With the development trends of multistatic spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), geosynchronous SAR (GEO SAR) employing several formation-flying small satellites also has great potential for remote sensing. The small satellites can cooperate to acquire multi-channel data for moving target detection and parameter estimation in strong clutters. However, multistatic GEO SAR has large satellite spacing and a curved trajectory, which induce the near-field effects and channels out of alignment, respectively, bringing about challenges for the spatial adaptive processing. These problems produce a high-order term in the multi-channel slant range model, making the traditional model and adaptive processing method invalid. In this paper, to meet the requirement of SAR focusing, we firstly derive a fourth-order slant range model and a third-order path difference model for multistatic GEO SAR. Secondly, based on the derived model, the principle of stationary phase and series reversion method are utilized to derive the spatial steering vector for a moving target, which is a basis of spatial adaptive processing in the range-Doppler domain. Thirdly, the time-domain match filtering is constructed based on the fourth-order slant range model to image the moving target. Additionally, the moving targets are detected in the image domain. The motion parameter is estimated by iteratively maximizing the output signal to clutter and noise ratio (SCNR) through the range of possible target velocities. Finally, considering that the GEO SAR is still in development, the computer simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness and evaluate the performance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number346
Pages (from-to)1-29
Number of pages29
JournalRemote Sensing
Volume13
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Curved trajectory
  • Motion parameter estimation
  • Moving target detection
  • Multistatic GEO SAR
  • Near-field effects

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