Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK: From large- to Small-Scale networks

Nandakumaran Nadarajah, Amir Khodabandeh, Kan Wang, Mazher Choudhury, Peter J.G. Teunissen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)
68 Downloads (Pure)


Precise point positioning (PPP) and its integer ambiguity resolution-enabled variant, PPP-RTK (real-time kinematic), can benefit enormously from the integration of multiple global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). In such a multi-GNSS landscape, the positioning convergence time is expected to be reduced considerably as compared to the one obtained by a single-GNSS setup. It is therefore the goal of the present contribution to provide numerical insights into the role taken by the multi-GNSS integration in delivering fast and high-precision positioning solutions (sub-decimeter and centimeter levels) using PPP-RTK. To that end, we employ the Curtin PPP-RTK platform and process data-sets of GPS, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and Galileo in stand-alone and combined forms. The data-sets are collected by various receiver types, ranging from high-end multi-frequency geodetic receivers to low-cost single-frequency mass-market receivers. The corresponding stations form a large-scale (Australia-wide) network as well as a small-scale network with inter-station distances less than 30 km. In case of the Australia-wide GPS-only ambiguity-float setup, 90% of the horizontal positioning errors (kinematic mode) are shown to become less than five centimeters after 103 min. The stated required time is reduced to 66 min for the corresponding GPS + BDS + Galieo setup. The time is further reduced to 15 min by applying single-receiver ambiguity resolution. The outcomes are supported by the positioning results of the small-scale network.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1078
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2018


  • Carrier phase ambiguity resolution
  • Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)
  • Ionosphere weighted model
  • Network in-loop
  • PPP-RTK network and user


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