Multi-level control of resistive ram (Rram) using a write termination to achieve 4 bits/cell in high resistance state

Hassan Aziza*, Said Hamdioui, Moritz Fieback, Mottaqiallah Taouil, Mathieu Moreau, Patrick Girard, Arnaud Virazel, Karine Coulié

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
181 Downloads (Pure)


RRAM density enhancement is essential not only to gain market share in the highly competitive emerging memory sector but also to enable future high-capacity and power-efficient brain-inspired systems, beyond the capabilities of today’s hardware. In this paper, a novel design scheme is proposed to realize reliable and uniform multi-level cell (MLC) RRAM operation without the need of any read verification. RRAM quad-level cell (QLC) capability with 4 bits/cell is demonstrated for the first time. QLC is implemented based on a strict control of the cell programming current of 1T-1R HfO2-based RRAM cells. From a design standpoint, a self-adaptive write termination circuit is proposed to control the RESET operation and provide an accurate tuning of the analog resistance value of each cell of a memory array. The different resistance levels are obtained by varying the compliance current in the RESET direction. Impact of variability on resistance margins is simulated and analyzed quantitatively at the circuit level to guarantee the robustness of the proposed MLC scheme. The minimal resistance margin reported between two consecutive states is 2.1 kΩ along with an average energy consumption and latency of 25 pJ/cell and 1.65 µs, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2222
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Current control
  • MLC
  • OxRAM multi-level cell
  • QLC
  • RRAM
  • Variability
  • Write termination


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