Multi-material additive manufacturing in architecture and construction: A review

A.M. Pajonk, A.I. Prieto Hoces, Ulrich Blum, U. Knaack

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)
175 Downloads (Pure)


Multi-Material Additive Manufacturing (MMAM) is an emerging manufacturing approach that is gaining interest in architecture and construction as an expansion of Additive Manufacturing. Hereby, different materials or material properties are combined in a single additive process in order to create objects that are composed of multiple materials. Ultimately, this approach introduces a new way of manufacturing and building, where assembly is no longer a necessity in order to combine multiple materials. Moreover, different potentials can be derived from the use of MMAM. Leading towards components with heterogeneous material composition and a high degree of adaption towards structural, environmental, and design criteria. This work provides an overview of the current state of MMAM in architecture and construction. Different processes and materials which have been reported are discussed and potentials, which emerge through the use of MMAM are described using specific use-cases.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103603
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Building Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • 3D printing
  • Building technology
  • Construction
  • Functionally graded materials
  • Multi-material additive manufacturing


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