Multiplexed Readout for 1000-Pixel Arrays of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

Jan van Rantwijk, Martin Grim, Dennis van Loon, Stephen Yates, Andrey Baryshev, J. Baselmans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)


Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are the most attractive radiation detectors for far-infrared and sub-mm astronomy. They combine ultimate sensitivity with the possibility to create very large detector arrays, in excess of 10000 pixels. This is possible by reading-out the arrays using RF frequency division multiplexing, which allows multiplexing ratios in excess of 1000 pixels per readout line. We describe a novel readout system for large arrays of MKIDs, operating in a 2-GHz band in the 4-8-GHz range. The readout, which is a combination of a digital frontand back-end and an analog upconverter and downconverter system, can read out up to 4000 detectors simultaneously with 1-kHz data rate. The system achieves a readout noise power spectral density of -98 dBc/Hz while reading 1000 carriers simultaneously, which scales linear with the number of carriers. We demonstrate that 4000 stateof-the-art aluminium-NbTiN MKIDs can be read out without deteriorating their intrinsic performance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1876-1883
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2016


  • microwave superconductivity
  • Design of microwave components for astrophysic applications
  • design of microwave devices and circuits
  • frequency division multiplexing
  • heterodyne and direct detector instruments
  • kinetic inductance detectors


Dive into the research topics of 'Multiplexed Readout for 1000-Pixel Arrays of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this