Quantum control of levitated dielectric particles is an emerging subject in quantum optomechanics. A major challenge is to efficiently measure and manipulate the particle’s motion at the Heisenberg uncertainty limit. Here we present a nanophotonic interface suited to address this problem. By optically trapping a 150 nm silica particle and placing it in the near field of a photonic crystal cavity, we achieve tunable single-photon optomechanical coupling of up to g0∕2π 9kHz, three orders of magnitude larger than previously reported for levitated cavity optomechanical systems. Efficient collection and guiding of light through the nanophotonic structure results in a per-photon displacement sensitivity that is increased by two orders of magnitude compared to conventional far-field detection. The demonstrated performance shows a promising route for room temperature quantum optomechanics.