Nebula: Monte Carlo simulator of electron–matter interaction

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Monte Carlo simulations are frequently used to describe electron–matter interaction in the 0–50 keV energy range. It often takes hours to simulate electron microscope images using first-principle physical models. In an attempt to maintain a reasonable speed, empirical models are sometimes used. We present an open-source software package with first-principle physical models, which can run on GPUs for fast results. Typical electron microscope images can be obtained in minutes instead of hours on consumer-grade hardware, without any loss of accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100605
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Electron scattering
  • GPU
  • Lithography
  • Metrology
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • SEM


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