Nineteenth-century stone protection: the invention and early research on fluosilicates and their dispersion into Europe

TG Nijland, Wido Quist

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The nineteenth century, with its industrialization and confidence in science, sees the introduction of a wide range of synthetic products for the protection (waterproofing, consolidation) of porous building materials such as stone, brick, mortar and plaster, including fluosilicates (fluates) ethylsilicates, waterglass, Ba-hydroxides and many more, rapidly replacing the traditional limewater and linseed oil. Especially fluates, invented by Jacques Louis Kessler who changed German-occupied Lorraine for Clermont-Ferrand deeper in France, rapidly spread over Europe. Several early material scientists, like Ludwig von Tetmajer and Hans Hauenschild, performed experiments studying the effect. Especially Hauenschild was instrumental in the spread of the use of fluates. That is why, in later years, in addition to the original Kessler fluates they were called Hauenschildfluates. This paper provides a brief background on the chemical engineer Kessler, discusses early research on the effect of fluates and their introduction in The Netherlands.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBuilding Knowledge, Constructing Histories
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 6th International Congress on Construction History (6ICCH 2018)
EditorsIne Wouters, Stephanie Van de Voorde, Inge Bertels, Bernard Espion, Krista De Jonge, Denis Zastavni
Place of PublicationLondon
PublisherCRC Press / Balkema
Pages999-1004
Number of pages6
Volume2
ISBN (Print)978-1-138-58414-3
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Event6ICCH 2018: 6th International Congress on Construction History - Brussels, Belgium
Duration: 9 Jul 201813 Jul 2018

Conference

Conference6ICCH 2018: 6th International Congress on Construction History
CountryBelgium
CityBrussels
Period9/07/1813/07/18

Keywords

  • Facades
  • Fluosilicate
  • Kessler
  • Late 19th-first half 20th century
  • Northwest and Central Europe

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