The Internet of things (IoT) is composed by a wide variety of software and hardware components that inherently contain vulnerabilities. Previous research has shown that it takes only a few minutes from the moment an IoT device is connected to the Internet to the first infection attempts. Still, we know little about the evolution of exploit vectors: Which vulnerabilities are being targeted in the wild, how has the functionality changed over time, and for how long are vulnerabilities being targeted? Understanding these questions can help in the secure development, and deployment of IoT networks. We present the first longitudinal study of IoT malware exploits by analyzing 17,720 samples collected from three different sources from 2015 to 2020. Leveraging static and dynamic analysis, we extract exploits from these binaries to then analyze them along the following four dimensions: (1) evolution of infection vectors over the years, (2) exploit lifespan, vulnerability age, and the time-to-exploit of vulnerabilities, (3) functionality of exploits, and (4) targeted IoT devices and manufacturers. Our descriptive analysis uncovers several patterns: IoT malware keeps evolving, shifting from simply leveraging brute force attacks to including dozens of device-specific exploits. Once exploits are developed, they are rarely abandoned. The most recent binaries still target (very) old vulnerabilities. In some cases, new exploits are developed for a vulnerability that has been known for years. We find that the mean time-to-exploit after vulnerability disclosure is around 29 months, much longer than for malware targeting other environments.
|Name||ASIA CCS 2022 - Proceedings of the 2022 ACM Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security|
|Conference||17th ACM ASIA Conference on Computer and Communications Security 2022, ASIA CCS 2022|
|Period||30/05/22 → 3/06/22|
- dynamic analysis
- infection vectors
- static analysis