Noise threshold for a fault-tolerant two-dimensional lattice architecture

Krysta M. Svore*, David P. Divincenzo, Barbara M. Terhal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


We consider a model of quantum computation in which the set of operations is limited to nearest-neighbor interactions on a 2D lattice. We model movement of qubits with noisy SWAP operations. For this architecture we design a fault-tolerant coding scheme using the concatenated [[7,1,3]] Steane code. Our scheme is potentially applicable to ion-trap and solid-state quantum technologies. We calculate a lower bound on the noise threshold for our local model using a detailed failure probability analysis. We obtain a threshold of 1.85 × 10-5 for the local setting, where memory error rates are one-tenth of the failure rates of gates, measurement, and preparation steps. For the analogous nonlocal setting, we obtain a noise threshold of 3.61 × 10-5. Our results thus show that the additional SWAP operations required to move qubits in the local model affect the noise threshold only moderately.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-318
Number of pages22
JournalQuantum Information and Computation
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Quantum architectures
  • Quantum error correction
  • Quantum fault tolerance


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