Nonideal compressible fluid dynamics of dense vapors and supercritical fluids.

Alberto Guardone, Piero Colonna, M. Pini, Andrea Spinelli

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The gas dynamics of single-phase nonreacting fluids whose thermodynamic states are close to vapor-liquid saturation, close to the vapor-liquid critical point, or in supercritical conditions differs quantitatively and qualitatively from the textbook gas dynamics of dilute, ideal gases. Due to nonideal fluid thermodynamic properties, unconventional gas dynamic effects are possible, including nonclassical rarefaction shock waves and the nonmonotonic variation of the Mach number along steady isentropic expansions. This review provides a comprehensive theoretical framework of the fundamentals of nonideal compressible fluid dynamics (NICFD). The relation between nonideal gas dynamics and the complexity of the fluid molecules is clarified. The theoretical, numerical, and experimental tools currently employed to investigate NICFD flows and related applications are reviewed, followed by an overview of industrial processes involving NICFD, ranging from organic Rankine and supercritical CO2 cycle power systems to supercritical processes. The future challenges facing researchers in the field are briefly outlined.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241–269
Number of pages29
JournalAnnual Review of Fluid Mechanics
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • nonideal compressible fluid dynamics
  • nonideal thermodynamics
  • fundamental derivative of gas dynamics
  • supercritical carbon dioxide flows and power systems
  • organic Rankine cycle power systems
  • supercritical injection


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