Numerical investigations of the aerodynamics and handling qualities of a helicopter flying across a wind turbine wake

Antonio Visingardi, Marilena Pavel

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Abstract

The present paper illustrates the outcomes of a research activity carried out by CIRA and the Delft University of Technology in the framework of the GARTEUR HC/AG-23 action group. This activity has been aimed at investigating,
from the aerodynamic and handling qualities point of view, the problem of a Bo105 helicopter rotor crossing, in low-speed level flight, the wake of a NREL 5MW wind turbine (WT), in the presence of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). A
crossing flight path orthogonal to the WT axis, and located two WT rotor diameters downstream to the WT disk, has been selected. Three different flight altitudes, with respect to the WT hub, and two flight directions have been investigated. The aerodynamic simulations have been carried out by using a BEM methodology and by applying a decoupled interactional procedure specifically conceived for the purpose. The rotor blades have been assumed fully rigid. The simulations have shown that the encounter of a uniform side wind or a WT wake with a helicopter rotor, locally alters the velocities acting on the helicopter rotor blades, in magnitude and/or direction, because of the WT axial and radial changes in velocity deficit; the presence of the WT blade tip vortices; the presence of the ABL; the WT wake swirl. These velocities modify the helicopter rotor blade sectional effective angles of attack, which, in turn, change the blade loads, generate flapping angles and alter the rotor forces and moments. Compared to the flight inside a uniform side wind, the crossing of a WT
wake produces important rotor rolling and pitching moments, the thrust increases while the torque decreases. The flight altitude has only moderate effects. Related to handling qualities analysis, the paper conside. The present paper illustrates the outcomes of a research activity carried out by CIRA and the Delft University of Technology in the framework of the GARTEUR HC/AG-23 action group. This activity has been aimed at investigating, from the aerodynamic and handling qualities point of view, the problem of a Bo105 helicopter rotor crossing, in low-speed level flight, the wake of a NREL 5MW wind turbine (WT), in the presence of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). A crossing flight path orthogonal to the WT axis, and located two WT rotor diameters downstream to the WT disk, has been selected. Three different flight altitudes, with respect to the WT hub, and two flight directions have been investigated. The aerodynamic simulations have been carried out by using a BEM methodology and by applying a decoupled interactional procedure specifically conceived for the purpose. The rotor blades have been assumed fully rigid. The simulations have shown that the encounter of a uniform side wind or a WT wake with a helicopter rotor, locally alters the velocities acting on the helicopter rotor blades, in magnitude and/or direction, because of the WT axial and radial changes in velocity deficit; the presence of the WT blade tip vortices; the presence of the ABL; the WT wake swirl. These velocities modify the helicopter rotor blade sectional effective angles of attack, which, in turn, change the blade loads, generate flapping angles and alter the rotor forces and moments. Compared to the flight inside a uniform side wind, the crossing of a WT wake produces important rotor rolling and pitching moments, the thrust increases while the torque decreases. The flight altitude has only moderate effects. Related to handling qualities analysis, the paper considers the ADS-33 pitch and roll attitude quickness parameters and shows that when the WT wake approaches the helicopter from left to right (L2R) this results in a momentarily increase in the quickness that pilot needs to command. Finally, the analysis of the results has indicated that, for a WT rotor and helicopter rotor both counter-clockwise rotating, a pilot experiences a greater workload during the flight in the direction leaving the WT disk on its starboard side. rs the ADS-33 pitch and roll
attitude quickness parameters and shows that when the WT wake approaches the helicopter from left to right (L2R) this results in a momentarily increase in the quickness that pilot needs to command. Finally, the analysis of the results has indicated that, for a WT rotor and helicopter rotor both counter-clockwise rotating, a pilot experiences a greater workload during the flight in the direction leaving the WT disk on its starboard side.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 44th European Rotorcraft Forum
Subtitle of host publicationDelft, The Netherlands, 2018
EditorsC. Hermans
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Event44th European Rotorcraft Forum - Delft, Netherlands
Duration: 18 Sep 201821 Sep 2018
Conference number: 44

Conference

Conference44th European Rotorcraft Forum
Abbreviated titleERF 2018
CountryNetherlands
CityDelft
Period18/09/1821/09/18

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