Numerical study of molten metal melt pool behaviour during conduction-mode laser spot melting

Amin Ebrahimi*, C.R. Kleijn, I.M. Richardson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
61 Downloads (Pure)


Molten metal melt pools are characterised by highly non-linear responses, which are very sensitive to imposed boundary conditions. Temporal and spatial variations in the energy flux distribution are often neglected in numerical simulations of melt pool behaviour. Additionally, thermo-physical properties of materials are commonly changed to achieve agreement between predicted melt-pool shape and experimental post-solidification macrograph. Focusing on laser spot melting in conduction mode, we investigated the influence of dynamically adjusted energy flux distribution and changing thermo-physical material properties on melt pool oscillatory behaviour using both deformable and non-deformable assumptions for the gas-metal interface. Our results demonstrate that adjusting the absorbed energy flux affects the oscillatory fluid flow behaviour in the melt pool and consequently the predicted melt-pool shape and size. We also show that changing the thermo-physical material properties artificially or using a non-deformable surface assumption lead to significant differences in melt pool oscillatory behaviour compared to the cases in which these assumptions are not made.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105304
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Laser material processing
  • Melt pool behaviour
  • Thermocapilary flow
  • Flow instabilities
  • Free surface oscillation


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