On advanced numerical techniques for the modeling of bolt reinforced rock mass

Tuan Anh Bui, Giuseppe Cammarata, Varun Choudary Kancharla, Ronald Brinkgreve, Sandro Brasile

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Rock bolting plays an important role in different geo-engineering applications and its numerical modelling is crucial for the analysis and design of rock structures. Continuum modelling simulation of bolt-reinforced rock masses requires specific techniques to properly model the reinforcement system and its interaction with the rock mass, which often exhibits a nonlinear softening/brittle response. In this context, strain localization might occur, which, in turn, may affect numerical convergence and the quality of results. This paper presents some advanced numerical techniques implemented in PLAXIS to overcome the abovementioned challenges. Firstly, a regularization technique is implemented for an extended version of the Hoek-Brown failure criterion with strain softening. Secondly, the formulation of the structural bolt element interacting with the rock mass is developed. Finally, the robustness and accuracy of these techniques are discussed via a numerical example of a typical underground mining excavation problem.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Event15th international ISRM Congress 2023 & 72nd Geomechanics Colloquium: Challenges in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering - Salzburg Congress, Auerspergstraße 6, 5020 Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
Duration: 9 Oct 202314 Oct 2023


Conference15th international ISRM Congress 2023 & 72nd Geomechanics Colloquium
Abbreviated titleISRM 2023
Internet address


  • Numerical modelling
  • Hoek-Brown with Softening
  • Rock reinforcement
  • Underground excavations


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