On the impact of GNSS ambiguity resolution: geometry, ionosphere, time and biases

A. Khodabandeh, P. J.G. Teunissen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) is the key to fast and precise GNSS positioning and navigation. Next to the positioning parameters, however, there are several other types of GNSS parameters that are of importance for a range of different applications like atmospheric sounding, instrumental calibrations or time transfer. As some of these parameters may still require pseudo-range data for their estimation, their response to IAR may differ significantly. To infer the impact of ambiguity resolution on the parameters, we show how the ambiguity-resolved double-differenced phase data propagate into the GNSS parameter solutions. For that purpose, we introduce a canonical decomposition of the GNSS network model that, through its decoupled and decorrelated nature, provides direct insight into which parameters, or functions thereof, gain from IAR and which do not. Next to this qualitative analysis, we present for the GNSS estimable parameters of geometry, ionosphere, timing and instrumental biases closed-form expressions of their IAR precision gains together with supporting numerical examples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)637–658
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Geodesy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Canonical differencing (CD) transformation
  • Estimable parameters
  • Global navigation satellite system (GNSS)
  • Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR)
  • Precision gain numbers
  • UD-SD-DD decomposition

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