On the Problem of Double-Filtering in PPP-RTK

A. Khodabandeh*, P. J.G. Teunissen, D. Psychas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


To obtain single-receiver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) parameter solutions, the PPP-RTK user-filter combines measurements with time-correlated corrections that are separately computed by the filter of an external provider. The consequence of exercising such double-filtering is that the Kalman filter’s standard assumption of having uncorrelated measurements in time becomes violated. This leads the user-filter to lose its ‘minimum variance’ property, thereby delivering imprecise parameter solutions. The solutions’ precision-loss becomes more pronounced when one experiences an increase in the correction latency, i.e., the delay in time after the corrections are estimated and the time they are applied to the user measurements. In this contribution, we propose a new multi-epoch formulation for the PPP-RTK user-filter upon which both the uncertainty and the temporal correlation of the corrections are incorporated. By a proper augmentation of the user-filter state-vector, the corrections are jointly measurement-updated with the user parameter solutions. Supported by numerical results, the proposed formulation is shown to outperform its commonly used counterpart in the minimum-variance sense.

Original languageEnglish
Article number229
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • double-filtering
  • global navigation satellite system (GNSS)
  • integer ambiguity resolution enabled precise point positioning (PPP-RTK)
  • Kalman filter
  • time-correlated corrections


Dive into the research topics of 'On the Problem of Double-Filtering in PPP-RTK'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this