On the Relation Between Beam Coupling and Feed Coupling in Wideband Antenna Arrays

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We present a study on beam coupling in radiating structures that support multiple simultaneous beams. The formation of multiple beams is relevant in modern wireless communication applications when diverse data streams can be sent from a single transmitter to users located in different directions. General expressions are provided that relate the coupling between radiated beams to the associated current distributions on the radiating aperture. When expanding the currents in terms of basis functions, the beam coupling can be also written in terms of coupling contributions due to each pair of basis functions. The analysis is applied to antenna arrays with different levels of mutual coupling between the array elements. More specifically, arrays of resonant elements, characterized by very low mutual coupling, are compared with arrays of connected elements, which are strongly coupled. We show that, even for a very high level of mutual coupling between individual array elements, it is possible to obtain orthogonal beams if the total current distributions associated with the beams are uncoupled.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9464656
Pages (from-to)260-267
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Antenna arrays
  • beam coupling factor
  • multiple beams
  • mutual coupling
  • wideband arrays


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