On the scalability of private and pooled on-demand services for urban mobility in Amsterdam

Jishnu Narayan*, Oded Cats, Niels van Oort, Serge Paul Hoogendoorn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)


The emergence of on-demand transport services is set to change the mobility landscape in urban areas. This study investigates the potential scalability of an on-demand mobility system to substitute motorised trips performed by private cars and public transport in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We adopt an agent-based simulation framework and investigate scenarios where either private and pooled on-demand services replace private car trips, public transport trips, or both private car and public transport trips. Service performance in terms of level of service offered and operational efficiency are analysed. Results indicate that pooled on-demand services fare better than private on-demand in terms of veh-km travelled and the empty drive ratio. Private on-demand services generate 43%, 38%, and 44% more veh-km than pooled on-demand services when on-demand services replace car trips, public transport trips, or car and public transport trips, respectively. However, private on-demand services offer shorter total travel times than pooled on-demand for all scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2-18
Number of pages17
JournalTransportation Planning and Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • agent-based simulation
  • case study
  • On-demand mobility
  • operational efficiency
  • trip substitution
  • urban mobility


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