To correctly interpret the estimated displacements in InSAR point clouds, especially in the built environment, these need to be linked to real-world structures. This requires the accurate and precise 3D positioning of each point. Artificial ground control points (GCPs), such as corner reflectors, serve this purpose, but since they require efforts and resources, there is a need for criteria to assess their usefulness. Here we evaluate the value and necessity of using GCPs for different scenarios, concerning the required efforts, and compare this to alternatives such as digital surface models (DSM) and advanced (geo) physical corrections. We consider single-epoch as well as multi-epoch GCP deployment, reflect on the number of GCPs required in relation to the number of SAR data acquisitions, and compare this with digital surface models of different quality levels. Analyzing the geolocation performance using TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1 data, we evaluate the pros and cons of various deployment options and show that the multi-epoch deployment of a GCP yields optimal geolocalization results in terms of precision, accuracy, and reliability.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|
- Corner reflector
- LiDAR DSM
- Persistent scatterer
- Synthetic aperture radar interferometry