Porous materials, such as zeolites, have great potential for biomedical applications, thanks to their ability to accommodate positively charged metal-ions and their facile surface functionalization. Although the latter aspect is important to endow the nanoparticles with chemical/colloidal stability and desired biological properties, the possibility for simple ion-exchange enables easy switching between imaging modalities and/or combination with therapy, depending on the envisioned application. In this study, the nanozeolite Linde type L (LTL) with already confirmed magnetic resonance imaging properties, generated by the paramagnetic gadolinium (GdIII) in the inner cavities, was successfully radiolabeled with a positron emission tomography (PET)-tracer zirconium-89 (89Zr). Thereby, exploiting 89Zr-chloride resulted in a slightly higher radiolabeling in the inner cavities compared to the commonly used 89Zr-oxalate, which apparently remained on the surface of LTL. Intravenous injection of PEGylated 89Zr/GdIII-LTL in healthy mice allowed for PET-computed tomography evaluation, revealing initial lung uptake followed by gradual migration of LTL to the liver and spleen. Ex vivo biodistribution confirmed the in vivo stability and integrity of the proposed multimodal probe by demonstrating the original metal/Si ratio being preserved in the organs. These findings reveal beneficial biological behavior of the nanozeolite LTL and hence open the door for follow-up theranostic studies by exploiting the immense variety of metal-based radioisotopes.
- multimodal imaging
- positron emission tomography (PET)