We propose a novel one-way quantum repeater architecture based on photonic tree-cluster states. Encoding a qubit in a photonic tree cluster protects the information from transmission loss and enables long-range quantum communication through a chain of repeater stations. As opposed to conventional approaches that are limited by the two-way communication time, the overall transmission rate of the current quantum repeater protocol is determined by the local processing time enabling very high communication rates. We further show that such a repeater can be constructed with as little as two stationary qubits and one quantum emitter per repeater station, which significantly increases the experimental feasibility. We discuss potential implementations with diamond defect centers and semiconductor quantum dots efficiently coupled to photonic nanostructures and outline how such systems may be integrated into repeater stations.