Open Experimental Data-Sets to Reveal Behavioural Insights of High-Deck Coach Evacuations

Rong Huang, Xuan Zhao*, Yufei Yuan, Qiang Yu, Winnie Daamen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


Numerous evacuation performance data for the utilization in evacuation modelling and simulations have been established for the conventional/widely studied scenarios, such as building evacuation scenarios. However, such data are typically scarce for a new scenario in literature — evacuation from high-deck coaches. This paper fulfills this gap by presenting empirical high-deck coach evacuation data-sets that can be used for model configuration and validation. To this end, firstly, five essential and commonly used performance metrics, i.e., evacuation time, flow rate, alighting time gap, velocity on stairways and exit choice, were collected and derived from two series of controlled experiments with 7 and 22 runs that involved 44 and 96 participants respectively. Then, all these datasets were structured in the distribution form, based on which three critical behavioural insights are revealed regardless of the evacuation conditions (the types of high-deck coaches, lighting conditions, and age groups). First, the evacuation behaviour in normal (experimental) conditions conforms to a multi-stage pattern (a modified four-stage pattern, i.e., reaction, acceleration, fluctuation and saturation stages). Second, the instantaneous flow rate can be well captured by the Burr, Loglogistic and Lognormal distributions, and the alighting time gap can be represented by the Burr distribution. Third, more than 50% of passengers evacuate through the rear door in the front-and-rear-door evacuations. The frequency of choosing the front door is found to shift towards the direction of the rear door compared to the ideal results (based on the shortest distance calculation) with a magnitude of approximately 1.95 seat rows. The presented data-sets are valuable resources for the development of high-deck coach evacuation models. The empirical findings promote the understanding upon the evacuation behaviour of high-deck coach passengers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2313-2356
Number of pages44
JournalFire Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Data-sets
  • Distribution
  • Evacuation behavior
  • High-deck coaches
  • Modelling and simulation

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