This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of several thulium oxide and nitride thin films grown by reactive magnetron direct-current sputtering. Hysteresis curves of the Tm emission spectra of the sputtering plasma versus the flow of N2 or O2 around the Tm-metal target were monitored. Emission spectra of atomic transition lines in the region between 370 and 420 nm were identified to be of neutral thulium. The plasma emission was compared to the hysteresis curves generated by monitoring the sputter rate and target voltage. The nitride films' composition and optical properties were determined by X-Ray Diffraction, and optical transmission spectroscopy. The composition of the oxide films was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The films are initially amorphous but crystallize after thermal treatment at 800°C. The optical bandgap values obtained using the Tauc method are consistent with what has been previously reported for both Tm2O3 and TmN prepared by other methods.
- Reactive magnetron direct-current sputtering
- Thulium mononitride
- Thulium oxynitrides
- Thulium sesquioxide