Optimal Periodic Variable Switching PWM for Harmonic Performance Enhancement in Grid-Connected Voltage Source Converters

Yang Wu, Junzhong Xu, Thiago B. Soeiro, Marco Stecca, Pavol Bauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
127 Downloads (Pure)


Variable switching frequency PWM (VSFPWM) modulation can be advantageously implemented in industrial applications, such as renewable energy, motor drives, and uninterrupted power supply (UPS) systems, to reduce the injected current harmonic amplitudes, to suppress audible noise, and to improve semiconductor power efficiency. In this article, the usage of periodic VSFPWM methods in a voltage source converter (VSC) is proposed, analyzed, and benchmarked in terms of harmonic spectrum spreading, following the IEEE-519 current harmonic standard for the connection to the distribution grid. Particular attention is paid to the influence of VSFPWM on the ac filter design. First, the analytical model of the voltage harmonic spectrum generated by a three-phase three-wire two-level VSC implementing several periodic VSFPWM methods is derived. Subsequently, a design guideline for the commonly used LCL filter in the grid-tied VSC application is proposed, which minimizes the size requirement of the necessary components. The voltage spectrum models of the proposed VSFPWM method and the optimal switching profiles are verified by MATLAB/Simulink simulations and a 5-kW three-phase two-level VSC hardware demonstrator. The study shows that the ac filter power density for the studied VSFPWM methods can be greatly increased when compared with the conventional and widely employed constant switching frequency continuous PWM strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7247-7262
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • filter design
  • optimal design
  • spectrum model
  • Variable switching frequency PWM (VSF-PWM)


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