Optimal Sizing and Control of a PV-EV-BES Charging System Including Primary Frequency Control and Component Degradation

Wiljan Vermeer*, Gautham Ram Chandra Mouli, Pavol Bauer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

This paper proposes a method for optimally dimensioning the components of a prosumer energy management system that integrates photovoltaic (PV) panels, multiple bidirectional electric vehicle chargers, an inverter, and a battery energy storage charger. Besides optimally dimensioning the components, it also optimizes power management while integrating the frequency containment reserve market and Li-ion battery degradation. The results show that the integration of the frequency containment reserve (FCR) market can increase lifetime cost savings by 36%, compared to optimal power management alone and up to 460% compared to non-optimal power management. Furthermore, the effects of PV and battery energy storage (BES) degradation on reservable capacity are analyzed including the importance of battery second-life value on lifetime net present cost is investigated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9740621
Pages (from-to)236-251
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society
Volume3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Battery degradation
  • frequency control
  • optimal sizing
  • optimal power control
  • photovoltaic
  • second-life batteries

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