Optimized fast GPU implementation of robust artificial-neural-networks for k-space interpolation (RAKI) reconstruction

Chi Zhang, Seyed Amir Hossein Hosseini, Sebastian Weingärtner, Kâmil Uǧurbil, Steen Moeller, Mehmet Akçakaya

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)
    30 Downloads (Pure)


    Background Robust Artificial-neural-networks for k-space Interpolation (RAKI) is a recently proposed deep-learning-based reconstruction algorithm for parallel imaging. Its main premise is to perform k-space interpolation using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) trained on subject-specific autocalibration signal (ACS) data. Since training is performed individually for each subject, the reconstruction time is longer than approaches that pre-train on databases. In this study, we sought to reduce the computational time of RAKI. Methods RAKI was implemented using CPU multi-processing and process pooling to maximize the utility of GPU resources. We also proposed an alternative CNN architecture that interpolates all output channels jointly for specific skipped k-space lines. This new architecture was compared to the original CNN architecture in RAKI, as well as to GRAPPA in phantom, brain and knee MRI datasets, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results The optimized GPU implementations were approximately 2-to-5-fold faster than a simple GPU implementation. The new CNN architecture further improved the computational time by 4-to-5-fold compared to the optimized GPU implementation using the original RAKI CNN architecture. It also provided significant improvement over GRAPPA both visually and quantitatively, although it performed slightly worse than the original RAKI CNN architecture. Conclusions The proposed implementations of RAKI bring the computational time towards clinically acceptable ranges. The new CNN architecture yields faster training, albeit at a slight performance loss, which may be acceptable for faster visualization in some settings.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere0223315
    Number of pages14
    JournalPLoS ONE
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - 2019

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