Opto-chemical pH detection of Myocardial Ischaemia using Fluorescent Hydrogels

Ger De Graaf, Maurits Frans Vriesendorp, Amin Hassan, Patrick James French

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
28 Downloads (Pure)


In this research fluorescent optochemical pH probes for the detection of ischaemia have been investigated. Myocardial ischaemia is the most prominent risk during heart surgery. During open heart surgery the heart is temporarily arrested and, since there no blood flowing, oxygen supply and removal of waste products is stopped and heart cells can be damaged. In this paper we propose a novel method to monitor the condition of the heart by placing optochemical pH sensors on several strategic places around the heart during surgery. Low cost opto-chemical pH sensors, using a HPTS (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene trisulfonic acid trisodium salt) fluorescent dye encapsulated in a thin bio-compatible hydrogel layer, were investigated for this application. Our research started with an extensive optical characterization of several types of hydrogel layers at different pH levels. Secondly a reflection probe prototype using several of these layers was designed, built and tested. Dual wavelength excitation and ratiometric detection of the fluorescent signals was used to detect the pH level. Typical output signals of 35% to 53% per pH in the range from 6.5-8.0 pH have been measured and a response time of typically 400 seconds was obtained for the prototypes. Finally based on our measurements on the HPTS layers and the reflection probe we propose an improved type of pH probe for the detection of ischaemia during open heart surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10901-10909
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Blood
  • dual wavelength excitation
  • Fluorescence
  • fluorescent dye
  • Heart
  • HPTS
  • hydrogel
  • ischaemia
  • Myocardium
  • optical pH probe
  • Probes
  • pyranine
  • ratiometric detection
  • Sensors
  • Surgery


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