In the field of nanomechanics, parametric excitations are of interest since they can greatly enhance sensing capabilities and eliminate cross-talk. Above a certain threshold of the parametric pump, the mechanical resonator can be brought into parametric resonance. Here we demonstrate parametric resonance of suspended single-layer graphene membranes by an efficient opto-thermal drive that modulates the intrinsic spring constant. With a large amplitude of the optical drive, a record number of 14 mechanical modes can be brought into parametric resonance by modulating a single parameter: The pre-tension. A detailed analysis of the parametric resonance allows us to study nonlinear dynamics and the loss tangent of graphene resonators. It is found that nonlinear damping, of the van der Pol type, is essential to describe the high amplitude parametric resonance response in atomically thin membranes.