Urban symbiosis is a strategy to create a more efficient metabolism of cities. However, urban symbiosis requires the integration of different systems, which is hard to achieve. Actors involved in existing systems can hardly develop ‘the bridges’ that are required to connect the thus far unrelated worlds of pre-existing systems. This paper analyses two cases of urban symbiosis and focusses on the process of building new actor networks. Urban symbiosis projects are generally complex and involve various stakeholders. The authors conclude that the introduction of additional actors or an additional institutional framework might be an effective means to create bridges between actors that could facilitate a more efficient metabolism of cities.
|Journal||Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering Sustainability (online)|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|
- infrastructure planning
- renewable energy
- sewage treatment & disposal