Overall synthesis and conclusions

Bert van Wee*, Dimitris Milakis, Nikolas Thomopoulos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeChapterScientific

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This chapter first systematically summarizes the most important findings and policy implications of each of the chapters “Factors affecting traffic flow efficiency implications of connected and autonomous vehicles: A review and policy recommendations” by Narayanan et al.; “Automated bus systems in Europe: A systematic review of passenger experience and road user interaction” by Heikoop et al.; “Cyber security and its impact on CAV safety: Overview, policy needs and challenges” by Katrakazas et al.; “Cybersecurity certification and auditing of automotive industry” by Mateo Sanguino et al.; “The wider use of autonomous vehicles in non-commuting journeys” by Kimber et al.; “Policy implications of the potential carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and energy impacts of highly automated vehicles” by Annema; “Potential health and well-being implications of autonomous vehicles” by Singleton et al.; “Data protection in a GDPR era: An international comparison of implications for autonomous vehicles” by Costantini et al.; “Ethical issues concerning automated vehicles and their implications for transport” by Dogan et al.; “Governance cultures and sociotechnical imaginaries of self-driving vehicle technology: Comparative analysis of Finland, UK and Germany” by Mladenović et al.; “Wider implications of autonomous vessels for the maritime industry: Mapping the unprecedented challenges” by Ghaderi; “The potential for automation to transform urban deliveries: Drivers, barriers and policy priorities” by Paddeu and Parkhurst. Next it synthesizes the overall findings and policy implications, and discusses future avenues for policy making and research. A first conclusion is that the chapters make clear that the ranges in policy relevant implications of AVs, within the scope of each chapter/topic, are still relatively broad. Secondly we conclude that research that is conceptually rich is more valuable for policy making. Thirdly we hypothesize that context matters for the uptake, impacts, and specific system design characteristics of real world AV implementation. Fourth we conclude that research on the global south has been limited so far. Fifth we argue that AVs, shared vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs) might stimulate each other in a positive way, in all directions. Finally we conclude that AVs will have wider societal implications, such as in the area of land use, accessibility, social exclusion, governmental expenditures, the labor market, and the environment. The more indirect the effects of AVs are, the more difficult they are to understand. For policy making a first conclusion is that the issues of ethics, cyber security and data protection deserve way more attention than they currently get. We also conclude that future motorway network extensions might not be no-regret anymore, because of possible congestion reductions due to AVs, but also because of decreasing marginal values of time. Finally we argue that countries that introduce AVs later than other countries can learn a lot from the real world experiences elsewhere.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Transport Policy and Planning
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Publication series

NameAdvances in Transport Policy and Planning
ISSN (Print)2543-0009
ISSN (Electronic)2542-9116

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Autonomous vehicles
  • Policy
  • Summary
  • Synthesis


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