Oxidation-induced Crack Healing in MAX Phase Containing Ceramic Composites

Guoping Bei*, Peter Greil

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeChapterScientific

    1 Citation (Scopus)


    Crack healing in MAX phase-based ceramics is mainly attributed to the reaction of M and A metal with oxygen penetrating into the crack. The intrinsic healing mechanisms of Al-contained MAX phases are due to formation of adhesive Al2O3 phase in the crack gaps, while Sn-contained MAX phases are ascribed to formation of major TiO2 and SnO2 in the bigger crack gaps and metallic Sn formation in the smaller secondary cracks. The oxides as well as metallic phase filling the crack may restore the integrity of MAX phase ceramic components. The mechanical strength and the electrical conductivity of the MAX phase ceramics can be fully restored after the healing process. The remarkable healing abilities of those MAX phases make them promising repair fillers for those ceramics with poor healing ability. Al2O3 mixed with Ti2Al0.5Sn0.5C MAX phase was selected as a model to demonstrate the healing efficiency. The fracture strength of 20 vol.% repair filler composites containing artificial indent cracks recovered fully to the level of the virgin material upon isothermal annealing in air atmosphere after 48 h at 700 °C and 0.5 h at 900 °C. The evolution of the crack-filling microstructure was explored by X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationAdvanced Ceramics Materials
    EditorsAshutosh Tiwari, Rosario A. Gerhardt, Magdalena Szutkowska
    Place of PublicationHoboken, NJ, USA
    ISBN (Electronic)978-1-119-24259-8
    ISBN (Print)978-1-119-24244-4
    Publication statusPublished - 2016


    • Crack healing
    • MAX phases
    • Oxidation
    • Solid solution
    • Strength recovery


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