Parametric Analysis of a Double Shaft, Batch-Type Paddle Mixer Using the Discrete Element Method (DEM)

J.V. Emmerink, A.H. Hadi, J. Jovanova, Chris Cleven, D.L. Schott

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To improve the understanding of the mixing performance of double shaft, batch-type paddle mixers, the discrete element method (DEM) in combination with a Plackett–Burman design of experiments simulation plan is used to identify factor significance on the system’s mixing performance. Effects of several factors, including three material properties (particle size, particle density and composition), three operational conditions (initial filling pattern, fill level and impeller rotational speed) and three geometric parameters (paddle size, paddle angle and paddle number), were quantitatively investigated using the relative standard deviation (RSD). Four key performance indicators (KPIs), namely the mixing quality, mixing time, average mixing power and energy required to reach a steady state, were defined to evaluate the performance of the double paddle mixer. The results show that the material property effects are not as significant as those of the operational conditions and geometric parameters. In particular, the geometric parameters were observed to significantly influence the energy consumption, while not affecting the mixing quality and mixing time, showing their potential towards designing more sustainable mixers. Furthermore, the analysis of granular temperature revealed that the centre area between the two paddles has a high diffusivity, which can be correlated to the mixing time.
Original languageEnglish
Article number738
Number of pages22
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • double paddle mixer
  • discrete element method (DEM)
  • granular materials
  • solid mixing
  • Plackett–Burman design
  • granular temperature


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