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Using ultrasound imaging velocimetry, we are able to present unique insight in transitional particle-laden flows. Together with a Moody diagram of time-averaged properties, we demonstrate that the laminar-turbulent transition behavior at high volume fractions is distinct from the single-phase case and cases with low volume fractions. For low volume fractions, a sharp transition is found with the presence of turbulent puffs, similar to the single-phase case. Seemingly, particles in this regime trigger subcritical transition. For high volume fractions a smooth transition is discovered without turbulent puffs in the transition regime. For this regime, particles cause a supercritical transition.
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- 1 Finished
1/05/17 → 30/04/22