Quantitative analysis of dynamic processes in living cells using time-lapse microscopy requires not only accurate tracking of every particle in the images, but also reliable extraction of biologically relevant parameters from the resulting trajectories. Whereas many methods exist to perform the tracking task, there is still a lack of robust solutions for subsequent parameter extraction and analysis. Here a novel method is presented to address this need. It uses for the first time a deep learning approach to segment single particle trajectories into consistent tracklets (trajectory segments that exhibit one type of motion) and then performs moment scaling spectrum analysis of the tracklets to estimate the number of mobility classes and their associated parameters, providing rich fundamental knowledge about the behavior of the particles under study. Experiments on in-house datasets as well as publicly available particle tracking data for a wide range of proteins with different dynamic behavior demonstrate the broad applicability of the method.