Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for development of tuberculosis (TB), however the underlying molecular foundations are unclear. Since lipids play a central role in the development of both DM and TB, lipid metabolism may be important for TB-DM pathophysiology. Methods: A 1 H NMR spectroscopy-based platform was used to determine 225 lipid and other metabolic intermediates in plasma samples of healthy controls (n = 50) and patients with TB (n = 50), DM (n = 50) or TB-DM (n = 27). Results: TB patients presented with wasting disease, represented by decreased amino acid levels including histidine and alanine. Conversely, DM patients were dyslipidemic as evidenced by high levels of very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. TB-DM patients displayed metabolic characteristics of both wasting and dyslipidemia combined with disease interaction-specific increases in phospholipid metabolites (e.g. sphingomyelins) and atherogenic remnant-like lipoprotein particles. Biomarker analysis identified the ratios of phenylalanine/histidine and esterified cholesterol/sphingomyelin as markers for TB classification regardless of DM-status. Conclusions: TB-DM patients possess a distinctive plasma lipid profile with pro-atherogenic properties. These findings support further research on the benefits of improved blood lipid control in the treatment of TB-DM.